Glossary

Annex B countries
Countries listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol who have adopted a greenhouse gas emissions target. For the most part, these are the industrialised ountries of the OECD and Eastern Europe.

CDM
see Clean Development Mechanism

CER
see Certified Emission Reductions

Certified Emission Reductions
The type of emission reduction certificate generated by CDM projects

Clean Development Mechanism
A flexible  mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol. Its purpose is to assist Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and to assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development.

Cooperative Approaches
Mechanism provided for in Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement whereby Parties can cooperate directly with one another in terms of mitigation outcomes. This makes it possible for emission reduction measures to be implemented in one country and the resulting emission reductions to be transferred to another and counted towards its NDC.

CO2eq
Carbon dioxide equivalent. The concentration of CO2 that would cause the same level of radiative forcing as a given type and concentration of greenhouse gas.

Emissions trading
One of the three flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol, by which an Annex I Party may transfer Kyoto Protocol units (AAU) to, or acquire units from, another Annex I party

Global Warming Potential
An index representing the combined effect of the differing times greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effectiveness in absorbing outgoing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide is taken as the gas of reference and given a 100-year GWP of 1.

HNO3
see Nitric acid

GWP
see Global Warming Potential

JI
see Joint Implementation

Joint Implementation
A mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol through which a developed country can receive „emissions reduction units“ when it helps to finance projects that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in another developed country (in practice, the recipient state is likely to be a country with an „economy in transition”.)

Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for climate change, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of „common but differentiated responsibilities.“ It was negotiated in December 1997 at the city of Kyoto, Japan and came into force on 16 February 2005.

Mitigation and Sustainable Development Mechanism
Mechanism provided for in Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement. The Mitigation and Sustainable development Mechanism enables Parties to implement GHG mitigation activities the results of which can be used towards fulfilling NDCs. The emission reductions achieved through the activity can either be used by the Party which implements the mitigation activity towards its NDC or by another Party. The MSDM will be governed by a body under the UNFCCC.

Nationally Determined Contribution
Under the Paris Agreement, Parties are obliged to develop and communicate Nationally Determined Contributions that identify the national climate targets, including mitigation and adaptation, which countries commit to.

NDC
see Nationally Determined Contribution

Nitric acid
Nitric acid (HNO
3) is a chemical which is mainly used for the production of synthetic fertilizers and explosives. Globally, an estimated 500-600 nitric acid plants are in operation. In the industrial production of nitric acid, ammonia (NH3) is oxidized over precious metal gauzes (primary catalyst) to produce nitrogen monoxide (NO) which then reacts with oxygen and water to form nitric acid.

Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide is a colourless non-flammable gas with the chemical formula N
2O. The agricultural sector and industry are the main anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide emissions. When released into the atmosphere N2O acts as a greenhouse gas and an ozone-depleting substance.

N2O
see nitrous oxide

Paris Agreement
A legally binding global agreement under the UNFCCC that deals with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation and climate finance. The agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21
st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. The agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016.

Secondary abatement technology
Secondary abatement removes nitrous oxide through the installation of a secondary nitrous oxide destruction catalyst in the oxidation reactor.

Tertiary abatement technology
Tertiary abatement removes nitrous oxide from the tail gas through either thermal or catalytic decomposition.

UNFCCC
see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
A treaty signed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro that calls for the „stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.“ The treaty includes a non-binding call for developed countries to return their emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The treaty took effect in March 1994.